EC2 Interview Questions

What is EC2?

EC2, short for Elastic Compute Cloud, is a web service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS) that allows users to rent virtual servers on which they can run their own applications. EC2 provides scalable computing capacity in the cloud, allowing users to easily scale resources up or down based on demand.

What are the different instance types in EC2?

There are several instance types in Amazon EC2, each catering to different use cases. Some common types include General Purpose (e.g., t3, m5), Compute Optimized (e.g., c5), Memory Optimized (e.g., r5), Storage Optimized (e.g., i3), and GPU Optimized (e.g., p3). Each instance type offers varying combinations of computing power, memory, storage, and networking capacity.

How can you launch an EC2 instance?

To launch an EC2 instance, you first need to sign in to the AWS Management Console, navigate to the EC2 dashboard, and click on the "Launch Instance" button. Then, follow the steps to choose an Amazon Machine Image (AMI), select an instance type, configure instance details, add storage, configure security groups, and review before launching.

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What is an AMI in EC2?

An AMI (Amazon Machine Image) in EC2 is a template that contains the software configuration (operating system, application server, and applications) required to launch an EC2 instance. It serves as a blueprint for creating virtual servers in the cloud. AMIs can be either provided by AWS or created by users.

What is the difference between on-demand instances and spot instances?

On-demand instances are instances that are rented and paid for by the hour with no long-term commitments. Spot instances, on the other hand, are purchased at a much lower price but can be terminated by the provider when the spot price exceeds your bid.

How can you secure your EC2 instances?

You can secure your EC2 instances by implementing proper security groups and network ACLs, configuring regular software patches and updates, enabling encryption for data at rest and in transit, using strong authentication measures like IAM roles and MFA, and setting up monitoring and logging for suspicious activities.

Explain the concept of EBS volumes in EC2.

EBS volumes in EC2 are virtual block storage devices that can be attached to EC2 instances. They provide durable and persistent storage separate from the EC2 instance, allowing data to persist even when the instance is stopped or terminated. EBS volumes can be easily resized and backed up for data protection.

What is the AWS Systems Manager and how can it be used with EC2 instances?

AWS Systems Manager is a management service that helps automate operational tasks on AWS resources, including EC2 instances. It provides features such as automation, patch management, maintenance schedules, configuration management, and more. Users can use Systems Manager to manage, monitor, and maintain their EC2 instances efficiently.

What is an Auto Scaling group in EC2?

An Auto Scaling group in EC2 is a feature that automatically adjusts the number of EC2 instances in a group based on conditions you define. It helps ensure that the desired number of instances are running at all times, scaling in or out in response to changes in demand.

How can you troubleshoot performance issues in EC2 instances?

To troubleshoot performance issues in EC2 instances, you can start by monitoring CPU utilization, memory usage, disk I/O, and network traffic using Amazon CloudWatch. You can also check for any unusual spikes in metrics, review logs for errors, optimize instance sizing, and consider using Performance Monitoring Tools for in-depth analysis.

Explain the concept of instance tenancy in EC2.

Instance tenancy in EC2 refers to the ownership and usage of virtual machines on the EC2 platform. There are three types: default, dedicated, and dedicated host. Default tenancy means instances can share hardware with other users, dedicated ensures a single user has exclusive access, while dedicated host provides complete control over physical server placement.

How does EC2 differ from AWS Lambda?

EC2 is a virtual server that allows you to have full control over the server configuration, while AWS Lambda is a serverless compute service where you only pay for the compute time consumed by your code. EC2 requires manual server management, while Lambda automatically scales and manages resources for you.

Explain the concept of reserved instances in EC2.

Reserved instances in EC2 allow users to commit to a one- or three-year term in exchange for a significant discount on the hourly usage rate. This provides cost savings for long-term workloads that have predictable usage patterns. Reserved instances are a cost-effective way to reduce overall AWS spending.

What is the importance of security groups in EC2?

Security groups in EC2 are essential for controlling inbound and outbound traffic to EC2 instances. They act as virtual firewalls, allowing you to specify which IP addresses and ports can communicate with your instances. This helps to enhance the security and protection of your EC2 resources from unauthorized access.

How can you monitor performance metrics of EC2 instances?

You can monitor performance metrics of EC2 instances using Amazon CloudWatch. CloudWatch provides automatic dashboards and alarms for CPU utilization, network traffic, disk activity, and more. You can also create custom metrics and set up alerts based on specific thresholds for monitoring your EC2 instance's performance.

What is EC2?

EC2, short for Elastic Compute Cloud, is a web service provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS) that allows users to rent virtual servers on which they can run their own applications. EC2 provides scalable computing capacity in the cloud, allowing users to easily scale resources up or down based on demand.

Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) is a web service that provides secure and resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It allows developers to easily launch and manage virtual servers, known as instances, on Amazon's infrastructure. EC2 instances can be customized based on computing requirements, operating system preferences, and storage needs.

Here is an example of launching an EC2 instance using the AWS Management Console:

  1. Log in to the AWS Management Console
  2. Go to the EC2 dashboard
  3. Click on "Launch Instance"
  4. Choose an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) - a template for the operating system and applications
  5. Select the instance type based on computing needs (e.g., general-purpose, memory-optimized, etc.)
  6. Configure instance details, such as network settings, storage, and security groups
  7. Add tags for identification and tracking purposes
  8. Review and launch the instance

EC2 offers a wide range of instance types to cater to various workloads, including on-demand instances, reserved instances, and spot instances. It enables businesses to scale computing resources up or down based on demand, making it a flexible and cost-effective cloud computing solution.

Key Features of EC2:

  • Scalability: Easily resize instance types to meet changing workload demands.
  • Security: Secure access controls, network security, and data encryption options.
  • Elasticity: Automatically adjust capacity to handle different traffic levels.
  • Pricing Models: Pay only for the compute capacity used, with options for cost savings.

Amazon EC2 is widely used by businesses of all sizes to run applications, host websites, perform data processing, and more, offering the flexibility and reliability needed in today's cloud computing environment.